The Brahman World is vast and recent policy shifts are allowing Brahman breeders in the United States to ship live animals to international markets that have not been open in many years.
In 2015, breeders saw historic shipments from the U.S. to Vietnam and Ecuador, and as January 2016 kicks off, Colombia has opened its border to U.S. cattle, filing a new protocol with the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA).
For years, Colombia banned imports of U.S. live cattle due to concerns over bluetongue and leucosis. In June 2010, Colombia nominally allowed live cattle imports from the United States, but at the same time imposed restrictive requirements that effectively prevented any such imports. In 2014, the United States continued to raise its ongoing concerns regarding Colombia’s bluetongue requirements, including at the CTPA Standing Committee on Sanitary and Phytosanitary Matters (SPS Committee) meeting held in May 2014. At that meeting, Colombia highlighted its proposed testing requirements for bluetongue, and U.S. regulatory authorities underscored the problematic technical aspects associated with those measures. The two sides continued to hold technical discussions on this issue, and have at last agreed upon a protocol for importation which can be found online at www.aphis.usda.gov.
The document titled “Import Health Requirements of Colombia for Breeding Cattle imported from the United States of America” outlines the necessary certifications as well as tests, vaccination and treatment requirements. The following is an excerpt from that document:
“The animals must be accompanied by a U.S. Origin Health Certificate, in English and Spanish, issued by a veterinarian accredited by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and endorsed by a Veterinary Services (VS) veterinarian. The certificate shall contain the name and address of both the exporter and importer and the complete identification of the animals to be exported.
Additional information shall include:
I. CERTIFICATION STATEMENTS
1. The United States is free of foot-and-mouth disease, Rift valley fever, contagious bovine pleuropneumonia, contagious nodular dermatosis (lumpy skin disease), and Japanese encephalitis.
2. The animals were born and raised in the United States of America.
3. At the farm of origin there have been no diagnosed cases of cowdriosis, during the 2 years prior to export.
4. At the farm of origin there have been no clinical cases of dermatophilosis during the last 12 months.
5. At the farm of origin there have been on diagnosed cases of vesicular stomatitis during 6 months prior to export.
6. At the farm of origin, the animals were not under official quarantine or movement restrictions due to contagious diseases during one year prior to export.
7. At the farm of origin, the animals did not show any clinical signs of bovine viral diarrhea, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, Q fever, rabies, trichomoniasis, campylobacteriosis, paratuberculosis, malignant catarrhal fever, or trypanosomiasis during one year prior to export.
8. The animals proceed from States accredited free of bovine tuberculosis. Or the animals proceed from accredited-free herds for tuberculosis (TB) according to USDA’s TB Eradication Uniform Methods and Rules.
9. The animals proceed from certified brucellosis-free states. Or the animals proceed from certified brucellosis-free herds according to the USDA’s Brucellosis Eradication Uniform Methods and Rules.
10. At the farms of origin, there have been no clinical signs of bovine leucosis during two years prior to export.
11. The following statements are made regarding bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE): a) The United States of America is recognized by OIE as a country having a negligible risk status for BSE in accordance with the Terrestrial Animal Health Code. b) Cattle selected for export are identified by a permanent identification system in such a way as to demonstrate that they are not exposed cattle as described in the Terrestrial Animal Health Code, of the World Organization for Animal Health. c) Cattle selected for export were born after the date from which the ban on the feeding of ruminants with meat-and-bone meal and greaves derived from ruminants was effectively enforced.
12. The animals for export were isolated under the supervision of a USDA accredited veterinarian for at least 30 days prior to export and during this time did not show any clinical signs of transmissible disease.
13. The animals were transported directly from the isolation facility to the port of embarkation, without contact with other animals, in sealed vehicles that were cleaned and disinfected with approved products prior to shipment.
II. TESTS, VACCINATIONS, AND TREATMENTS REQUIREMENTS
During isolation before de export, the animals were vaccinated or treated or tested with negative results for the following diseases:
1. TB: Intradermal caudal fold test with PPD tuberculin.
2. Bovine genital campylobacteriosis: One culture of vaginal or preputial washings or direct immunofluorescence test (only for naturally bred animals). The test is not required for bulls not used for natural breeding or that have bred only virgin heifers. The test is not required for heifers bred by artificial insemination.
3. Trichomoniasis: One culture of vaginal or preputial washings and direct microscopic examination (only for naturally bred animals). The test is not required for bulls not used for natural breeding or that have bred only virgin heifers. The test is not required for heifers bred by artificial insemination.
4. Bovine viral diarrhea (BVD): One immunoperoxidase assay or a capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or a real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test; or The animals were vaccinated with a U.S. approved vaccine between 15 days and no more than 6 months prior to export.
5. Paratuberculosis: Two ELISA tests with an interval of 21 days or one agar gel immunodiffusion test within 30 days prior to export.
6. Q Fever: One complement fixation test.
7. Enzootic Bovine leucosis: Two ELISA tests, at least 30 days apart, with the second test performed during isolation.
8. Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis: The animals were vaccinated with a killed vaccine between 15 days and no more than 6 months prior to export, or were tested with a virus neutralization test or blocking ELISA.
9. Bovine brucellosis: One buffered antigen test or competitive ELISA or fluorescent polarization assay.
10. Bluetongue: One ELISA or PCR test to be performed during isolation. Animals positive to ELISA can be retested using PCR. Animals testing negative to PCR will be eligible for export to Colombia. In Colombia animals will be retested with the same test used in the U.S. to clear the animals
11. Leptospirosis. The animals were vaccinated or were treated with an effective antibiotic for leptospirosis according to the manufacturer’s recommendation. Write the name of the product, dose, dates of treatments, and route of administration.
12. During isolation, the animals were treated twice for internal and external parasites. The first treatment was given at the beginning of isolation and the second within 12 days prior to export. Indicate the name of product, dose, dates of treatments, and route of administration.
III. EMBARKATION CERTIFICATION
I. At the port of embarkation, a VS port veterinarian must attach to the Origin Health Certificate the Certificate of Inspection of Export Animals (VS Form 17-37) showing:
A. The name and address of the exporter.
B. The name and address of the importer.
C. The number and species of animals to be shipped.
D. A statement that the animals have been given a careful veterinary inspection at the port of embarkation and found free from evidence of communicable disease and exposure thereto within 24 hours of export.”
El mundo del Brahman es enorme y los recientes cambios de la política permiten que criadores del Brahman en los Estados Unidos transporten animales vivos a mercados internacionales que no habían estado abiertos en muchos años. En 2015, los criadores vieron envíos históricos de los EE.UU. a Vietnam y Ecuador, y en enero se inicia el año 2016, y Colombia ha abierto sus fronteras al ganado de Estados Unidos, la presentación de un nuevo protocolo con el Departamento de Agricultura de Estados Unidos (USDA).